Nginx正向代理

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Nginx正向代理

在博主以往的项目中,nginx使用最多的代理方式都是反向代理,但是最近遇到一个企业内网环境安全合规性问题,所有后端无法直接与外部网络通信,在该区域前面有一层DMZ用来与外网通信,所以后端想要与外部通信就只能在这个区域内的服务器上实现代理或nat。

考虑到后端服务器上项目有其它第三方项目,所以不打算动nat网络。最后边使用nginx在前置服务器上做了正向代理,后端项目中配置proxy参数即可

proxy_pass

proxy_pass该指令用来设置代理,可以是反向代理也可以是正向代理。区别就在后面接的上游服务器是静态还是动态的,例如:

# 反向代理,静态指定上游服务器为192.168.44.171,或者一个域名
proxy_pass http://192.168.44.171$request_uri;
proxy_set_header HOST $host;

# 正向代理,此时上游服务器为$host变量,该变量为客户端实际的请求服务地址或域名
proxy_pass http://$host$request_uri;
proxy_set_header HOST $host;

正向代理代理http请求样例

server {
    # 指定DNS服务器IP地址
    resolver xxx.xx.xx.xx;
    resolver_timeout 5s;
    server_name _;
    listen 80;

    location / {

        # 设定正向代理,代理发起http请求
        proxy_pass http://$host$request_uri; 
        proxy_set_header HOST $host;
        proxy_buffers 256 4k;
        proxy_max_temp_file_size 0k;
        proxy_connect_timeout 30;
        proxy_send_timeout 60;
        proxy_read_timeout 60;
        proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_502;
    }
}

使用curl模拟测试

# 向该http代理发起http请求
[root@blog vhost]# curl -L -v --proxy 192.168.44.170:80 http://www.baidu.com
* About to connect() to proxy 192.168.44.170 port 80 (#0)
*   Trying 192.168.44.170...
* Connected to 192.168.44.170 (192.168.44.170) port 80 (#0)
> GET http://www.baidu.com/ HTTP/1.1
> User-Agent: curl/7.29.0
> Host: www.baidu.com
> Accept: */*
> Proxy-Connection: Keep-Alive
>
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< Server: nginx
< Date: Wen, 22 Apri 2020 15:37:47 GMT
< Content-Type: text/html
< Content-Length: 2381
< Connection: keep-alive
< Vary: Accept-Encoding
< Accept-Ranges: bytes
< Cache-Control: private, no-cache, no-store, proxy-revalidate, no-transform
< Etag: "588604dd-94d"
< Last-Modified: Mon, 23 Jan 2017 13:27:57 GMT
< Pragma: no-cache
< Set-Cookie: BDORZ=27315; max-age=86400; domain=.baidu.com; path=/
<
<!DOCTYPE html>
<!--STATUS OK--><html> <head><meta http-equiv=content-type content=text/html;charset=utf-8><meta http-equiv=X-UA-Compatible content=IE=Edge><meta content=always name=referrer><link rel=stylesheet type=text/css href=http://s1.bdstatic.com/r/www/cache/bdorz/baidu.min.css><title>百度一下,你就知道</title></head> <body link=#0000cc> <div id=wrapper> <div id=head> <div class=head_wrapper> <div class=s_form> <div class=s_form_wrapper> <div id=lg> <img hidefocus=true src=//www.baidu.com/img/bd_logo1.png width=270 height=129> </div> <form id=form name=f action=//www.baidu.com/s class=fm> <input type=hidden name=bdorz_come value=1> <input type=hidden name=ie value=utf-8> <input type=hidden name=f value=8> <input type=hidden name=rsv_bp value=1> <input type=hidden name=rsv_idx value=1> <input type=hidden name=tn value=baidu><span class="bg s_ipt_wr"><input id=kw name=wd class=s_ipt value maxlength=255 autocomplete=off autofocus></span><span class="bg s_btn_wr"><input type=submit id=su value=百度一下 class="bg s_btn"></span> </form> </div> </div> <div id=u1> <a href=http://news.baidu.com name=tj_trnews class=mnav>新闻</a> <a href=http://www.hao123.com name=tj_trhao123 class=mnav>hao123</a> <a href=http://map.baidu.com name=tj_trmap class=mnav>地图</a> <a href=http://v.baidu.com name=tj_trvideo class=mnav>视频</a> <a href=http://tieba.baidu.com name=tj_trtieba class=mnav>贴吧</a> <noscript> <a href=http://www.baidu.com/bdorz/login.gif?login&amp;tpl=mn&amp;u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.baidu.com%2f%3fbdorz_come%3d1 name=tj_login class=lb>登录</a> </noscript> <script>document.write('<a href="http://www.baidu.com/bdorz/login.gif?login&tpl=mn&u='+ encodeURIComponent(window.location.href+ (window.location.search === "" ? "?" : "&")+ "bdorz_come=1")+ '" name="tj_login" class="lb">登录</a>');</script> <a href=//www.baidu.com/more/ name=tj_briicon class=bri style="display: block;">更多产品</a> </div> </div> </div> <div id=ftCon> <div id=ftConw> <p id=lh> <a href=http://home.baidu.com>关于百度</a> <a href=http://ir.baidu.com>About Baidu</a> </p> <p id=cp>&copy;2017&nbsp;Baidu&nbsp;<a href=http://www.baidu.com/duty/>使用百度前必读</a>&nbsp; <a href=http://jianyi.baidu.com/ class=cp-feedback>意见反馈</a>&nbsp;京ICP证030173号&nbsp; <img src=//www.baidu.com/img/gs.gif> </p> </div> </div> </div> </body> </html>
* Connection #0 to host 192.168.44.170 left intact

# 向该http代理发起https请求,报400
[root@blog vhost]# curl -L -v --proxy 192.168.44.170:80 https://www.baidu.com
* About to connect() to proxy 192.168.44.170 port 80 (#0)
*   Trying 192.168.44.170...
* Connected to 192.168.44.170 (192.168.44.170) port 80 (#0)
* Establish HTTP proxy tunnel to www.baidu.com:443
> CONNECT www.baidu.com:443 HTTP/1.1
> Host: www.baidu.com:443
> User-Agent: curl/7.29.0
> Proxy-Connection: Keep-Alive
>
< HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
< Server: nginx
< Date: Wen, 22 Apri 2020 15:47:47 GMT
< Content-Type: text/html
< Content-Length: 150
< Connection: close
<
* Received HTTP code 400 from proxy after CONNECT
* Connection #0 to host 192.168.44.170 left intact
curl: (56) Received HTTP code 400 from proxy after CONNECT

正向代理代理https请求样例

server {
    # 指定DNS服务器IP地址
    resolver xxx.xx.xx.xx;
    resolver_timeout 5s;
    server_name _;
    listen 443;

    location / {
        # 设定正向代理,代理发起http请求
        proxy_pass https://$host$request_uri; 
        proxy_set_header HOST $host;
        proxy_buffers 256 4k;
        proxy_max_temp_file_size 0k;
        proxy_connect_timeout 30;
        proxy_send_timeout 60;
        proxy_read_timeout 60;
        proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_502;
    }
}

此时注意,需要客户端要发起http请求到该443端口服务

# 向该https代理发起http请求
[root@blog vhost]# curl -L -v --proxy 192.168.44.170:443 http://www.baidu.com
* About to connect() to proxy 192.168.44.170 port 443 (#0)
*   Trying 192.168.44.170...
* Connected to 192.168.44.170 (192.168.44.170) port 443 (#0)
> GET http://www.baidu.com/ HTTP/1.1
> User-Agent: curl/7.29.0
> Host: www.baidu.com
> Accept: */*
> Proxy-Connection: Keep-Alive
>
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< Server: nginx
< Date: Wen, 22 Apri 2020 15:56:30 GMT
< Content-Type: text/html
< Content-Length: 2443
< Connection: keep-alive
< Vary: Accept-Encoding
< Accept-Ranges: bytes
< Cache-Control: private, no-cache, no-store, proxy-revalidate, no-transform
< Etag: "58860402-98b"
< Last-Modified: Mon, 23 Jan 2017 13:24:18 GMT
< Pragma: no-cache
< Set-Cookie: BDORZ=27315; max-age=86400; domain=.baidu.com; path=/
<
<!DOCTYPE html>
<!--STATUS OK--><html> <head><meta http-equiv=content-type content=text/html;charset=utf-8><meta http-equiv=X-UA-Compatible content=IE=Edge><meta content=always name=referrer><link rel=stylesheet type=text/css href=https://ss1.bdstatic.com/5eN1bjq8AAUYm2zgoY3K/r/www/cache/bdorz/baidu.min.css><title>百度一下,你就知道</title></head> <body link=#0000cc> <div id=wrapper> <div id=head> <div class=head_wrapper> <div class=s_form> <div class=s_form_wrapper> <div id=lg> <img hidefocus=true src=//www.baidu.com/img/bd_logo1.png width=270 height=129> </div> <form id=form name=f action=//www.baidu.com/s class=fm> <input type=hidden name=bdorz_come value=1> <input type=hidden name=ie value=utf-8> <input type=hidden name=f value=8> <input type=hidden name=rsv_bp value=1> <input type=hidden name=rsv_idx value=1> <input type=hidden name=tn value=baidu><span class="bg s_ipt_wr"><input id=kw name=wd class=s_ipt value maxlength=255 autocomplete=off autofocus=autofocus></span><span class="bg s_btn_wr"><input type=submit id=su value=百度一下 class="bg s_btn" autofocus></span> </form> </div> </div> <div id=u1> <a href=http://news.baidu.com name=tj_trnews class=mnav>新闻</a> <a href=https://www.hao123.com name=tj_trhao123 class=mnav>hao123</a> <a href=http://map.baidu.com name=tj_trmap class=mnav>地图</a> <a href=http://v.baidu.com name=tj_trvideo class=mnav>视频</a> <a href=http://tieba.baidu.com name=tj_trtieba class=mnav>贴吧</a> <noscript> <a href=http://www.baidu.com/bdorz/login.gif?login&amp;tpl=mn&amp;u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.baidu.com%2f%3fbdorz_come%3d1 name=tj_login class=lb>登录</a> </noscript> <script>document.write('<a href="http://www.baidu.com/bdorz/login.gif?login&tpl=mn&u='+ encodeURIComponent(window.location.href+ (window.location.search === "" ? "?" : "&")+ "bdorz_come=1")+ '" name="tj_login" class="lb">登录</a>');
                </script> <a href=//www.baidu.com/more/ name=tj_briicon class=bri style="display: block;">更多产品</a> </div> </div> </div> <div id=ftCon> <div id=ftConw> <p id=lh> <a href=http://home.baidu.com>关于百度</a> <a href=http://ir.baidu.com>About Baidu</a> </p> <p id=cp>&copy;2017&nbsp;Baidu&nbsp;<a href=http://www.baidu.com/duty/>使用百度前必读</a>&nbsp; <a href=http://jianyi.baidu.com/ class=cp-feedback>意见反馈</a>&nbsp;京ICP证030173号&nbsp; <img src=//www.baidu.com/img/gs.gif> </p> </div> </div> </div> </body> </html>
* Connection #0 to host 192.168.44.170 left intact

# 向该https代理发起https请求
[root@blog vhost]# curl -L -v --proxy 192.168.44.170:443 https://www.baidu.com
* About to connect() to proxy 192.168.44.170 port 443 (#0)
*   Trying 192.168.44.170...
* Connected to 192.168.44.170 (192.168.44.170) port 443 (#0)
* Establish HTTP proxy tunnel to www.baidu.com:443
> CONNECT www.baidu.com:443 HTTP/1.1
> Host: www.baidu.com:443
> User-Agent: curl/7.29.0
> Proxy-Connection: Keep-Alive
>
< HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
< Server: nginx
< Date: Sat, 28 Jan 2023 15:22:54 GMT
< Content-Type: text/html
< Content-Length: 150
< Connection: close
<
* Received HTTP code 400 from proxy after CONNECT
* Connection #0 to host 192.168.44.170 left intact
curl: (56) Received HTTP code 400 from proxy after CONNECT

从上面可以看出http代理和https代理中,客户端侧必须向代理发起http协议请求,https协议无法从客户侧透传到代理侧,但是有另外一种方式可以实现https协议透传,那就是使用ngx_http_proxy_connect_module模块

ngx_http_proxy_connect_module

该模块可以透传https协议请求到被代理的服务,具体原理就是该模块用http协议将客户端和服务端建立一条tunnel隧道,之后客户端再与服务端进行https协议通信:

$ curl https://github.com/ -v -x 127.0.0.1:3128
*   Trying 127.0.0.1...                                           -.
* Connected to 127.0.0.1 (127.0.0.1) port 3128 (#0)                | curl creates TCP connection with nginx (with proxy_connect module).
* Establish HTTP proxy tunnel to github.com:443                   -'
> CONNECT github.com:443 HTTP/1.1                                 -.
> Host: github.com:443                                         (1) | curl sends CONNECT request to create tunnel.
> User-Agent: curl/7.43.0                                          |
> Proxy-Connection: Keep-Alive                                    -'
>
< HTTP/1.0 200 Connection Established                             .- nginx replies 200 that tunnel is established.
< Proxy-agent: nginx                                           (2)|  (The client is now being proxied to the remote host. Any data sent
<                                                                 '-  to nginx is now forwarded, unmodified, to the remote host)

* Proxy replied OK to CONNECT request
* TLS 1.2 connection using TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256  -.
* Server certificate: github.com                                   |
* Server certificate: DigiCert SHA2 Extended Validation Server CA  | curl sends "https://github.com" request via tunnel,
* Server certificate: DigiCert High Assurance EV Root CA           | proxy_connect module will proxy data to remote host (github.com).
> GET / HTTP/1.1                                                   |
> Host: github.com                                             (3) |
> User-Agent: curl/7.43.0                                          |
> Accept: */*                                                     -'
>
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK                                                 .-
< Date: Fri, 11 Aug 2017 04:13:57 GMT                             |
< Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8                          |  Any data received from remote host will be sent to client
< Transfer-Encoding: chunked                                      |  by proxy_connect module.
< Server: GitHub.com                                           (4)|
< Status: 200 OK                                                  |
< Cache-Control: no-cache                                         |
< Vary: X-PJAX                                                    |
...                                                               |
... <other response headers & response body> ...                  |
...                                                               '-

请求时序链路

  curl                     nginx (proxy_connect)            github.com
    |                             |                          |
(1) |-- CONNECT github.com:443 -->|                          |
    |                             |                          |
    |                             |----[ TCP connection ]--->|
    |                             |                          |
(2) |<- HTTP/1.1 200           ---|                          |
    |   Connection Established    |                          |
    |                             |                          |
    |                                                        |
    ========= CONNECT tunnel has been established. ===========
    |                                                        |
    |                             |                          |
    |                             |                          |
    |   [ SSL stream       ]      |                          |
(3) |---[ GET / HTTP/1.1   ]----->|   [ SSL stream       ]   |
    |   [ Host: github.com ]      |---[ GET / HTTP/1.1   ]-->.
    |                             |   [ Host: github.com ]   |
    |                             |                          |
    |                             |                          |
    |                             |                          |
    |                             |   [ SSL stream       ]   |
    |   [ SSL stream       ]      |<--[ HTTP/1.1 200 OK  ]---'
(4) |<--[ HTTP/1.1 200 OK  ]------|   [ < html page >    ]   |
    |   [ < html page >    ]      |                          |
    |                             |                          |

模块安装

[root@blog src]# git clone https://github.com/chobits/ngx_http_proxy_connect_module.git
Cloning into 'ngx_http_proxy_connect_module'...
remote: Enumerating objects: 649, done.
remote: Counting objects: 100% (251/251), done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (124/124), done.
remote: Total 649 (delta 161), reused 192 (delta 120), pack-reused 398
Receiving objects: 100% (649/649), 209.51 KiB | 0 bytes/s, done.
Resolving deltas: 100% (363/363), done.

[root@blog src]# ll ngx_http_proxy_connect_module/patch/
total 96
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9849 Jan 28 23:57 proxy_connect_1014.patch
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9697 Jan 28 23:57 proxy_connect.patch
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9408 Jan 28 23:57 proxy_connect_rewrite_1014.patch
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9505 Jan 28 23:57 proxy_connect_rewrite_101504.patch
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9496 Jan 28 23:57 proxy_connect_rewrite_1015.patch

nginx version enable REWRITE phase patch
1.4.x ~ 1.12.x NO proxy_connect.patch
1.4.x ~ 1.12.x YES proxy_connect_rewrite.patch
1.13.x ~ 1.14.x NO proxy_connect_1014.patch
1.13.x ~ 1.14.x YES proxy_connect_rewrite_1014.patch
1.15.2 YES proxy_connect_rewrite_1015.patch
1.15.4 ~ 1.16.x YES proxy_connect_rewrite_101504.patch

根据上面版本对应关系patch对应文件

# 去nginx源码包位置,根据上述表格版本关系patch对应补丁
cd nginx-1.14.2/
patch -p1 < /path/to/ngx_http_proxy_connect_module/patch/proxy_connect_youversionxxxxxxx.patch

# 提取之前的编译参数
nginx -V

# 开始编译配置
./configure '之前的编译参数' --add-module=/path/to/ngx_http_proxy_connect_module
# 开始编译生成二进制文件 objs/nginx
make

# 更换二进制文件,略,更换前记得备份

curl测试验证

样例配置

server {
    listen                         3128;

    # dns resolver used by forward proxying
    resolver                       114.114.114.114;

    # forward proxy for CONNECT request
    proxy_connect;
    proxy_connect_allow            443 563;
    proxy_connect_connect_timeout  10s;
    proxy_connect_data_timeout     10s;

    # forward proxy for non-CONNECT request
    location / {
        proxy_pass http://$host;
        proxy_set_header Host $host;
    }
}

curl测试

[root@blog conf]# curl https://www.baidu.com/ -v -x 192.168.44.170:3128
* About to connect() to proxy 192.168.44.170 port 3128 (#0)
*   Trying 192.168.44.170...
* Connected to 192.168.44.170 (192.168.44.170) port 3128 (#0)
* Establish HTTP proxy tunnel to www.baidu.com:443
> CONNECT www.baidu.com:443 HTTP/1.1
> Host: www.baidu.com:443
> User-Agent: curl/7.29.0
> Proxy-Connection: Keep-Alive
>
< HTTP/1.1 200 Connection Established
< Proxy-agent: nginx
<
* Proxy replied OK to CONNECT request
* Initializing NSS with certpath: sql:/etc/pki/nssdb
*   CAfile: /etc/pki/tls/certs/ca-bundle.crt
  CApath: none
* SSL connection using TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
* Server certificate:
*       subject: CN=baidu.com,O="Beijing Baidu Netcom Science Technology Co., Ltd",OU=service operation department,L=beijing,ST=beijing,C=CN
*       start date: Jul 05 05:16:02 2019 GMT
*       expire date: Aug 06 05:16:01 2020 GMT
*       common name: baidu.com
*       issuer: CN=GlobalSign RSA OV SSL CA 2018,O=GlobalSign nv-sa,C=BE
> GET / HTTP/1.1
> User-Agent: curl/7.29.0
> Host: www.baidu.com
> Accept: */*
>
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< Accept-Ranges: bytes
< Cache-Control: private, no-cache, no-store, proxy-revalidate, no-transform
< Connection: keep-alive
< Content-Length: 2443
< Content-Type: text/html
< Date: Wen, 22 Apri 2020 18:23:27 GMT
< Etag: "588603eb-98b"
< Last-Modified: Mon, 23 Jan 2017 13:23:55 GMT
< Pragma: no-cache
< Server: bfe/1.0.8.18
< Set-Cookie: BDORZ=27315; max-age=86400; domain=.baidu.com; path=/
<
<!DOCTYPE html>
<!--STATUS OK--><html> <head><meta http-equiv=content-type content=text/html;charset=utf-8><meta http-equiv=X-UA-Compatible content=IE=Edge><meta content=always name=referrer><link rel=stylesheet type=text/css href=https://ss1.bdstatic.com/5eN1bjq8AAUYm2zgoY3K/r/www/cache/bdorz/baidu.min.css><title>百度一下,你就知道</title></head> <body link=#0000cc> <div id=wrapper> <div id=head> <div class=head_wrapper> <div class=s_form> <div class=s_form_wrapper> <div id=lg> <img hidefocus=true src=//www.baidu.com/img/bd_logo1.png width=270 height=129> </div> <form id=form name=f action=//www.baidu.com/s class=fm> <input type=hidden name=bdorz_come value=1> <input type=hidden name=ie value=utf-8> <input type=hidden name=f value=8> <input type=hidden name=rsv_bp value=1> <input type=hidden name=rsv_idx value=1> <input type=hidden name=tn value=baidu><span class="bg s_ipt_wr"><input id=kw name=wd class=s_ipt value maxlength=255 autocomplete=off autofocus=autofocus></span><span class="bg s_btn_wr"><input type=submit id=su value=百度一下 class="bg s_btn" autofocus></span> </form> </div> </div> <div id=u1> <a href=http://news.baidu.com name=tj_trnews class=mnav>新闻</a> <a href=https://www.hao123.com name=tj_trhao123 class=mnav>hao123</a> <a href=http://map.baidu.com name=tj_trmap class=mnav>地图</a> <a href=http://v.baidu.com name=tj_trvideo class=mnav>视频</a> <a href=http://tieba.baidu.com name=tj_trtieba class=mnav>贴吧</a> <noscript> <a href=http://www.baidu.com/bdorz/login.gif?login&amp;tpl=mn&amp;u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.baidu.com%2f%3fbdorz_come%3d1 name=tj_login class=lb>登录</a> </noscript> <script>document.write('<a href="http://www.baidu.com/bdorz/login.gif?login&tpl=mn&u='+ encodeURIComponent(window.location.href+ (window.location.search === "" ? "?" : "&")+ "bdorz_come=1")+ '" name="tj_login" class="lb">登录</a>');
                </script> <a href=//www.baidu.com/more/ name=tj_briicon class=bri style="display: block;">更多产品</a> </div> </div> </div> <div id=ftCon> <div id=ftConw> <p id=lh> <a href=http://home.baidu.com>关于百度</a> <a href=http://ir.baidu.com>About Baidu</a> </p> <p id=cp>&copy;2017&nbsp;Baidu&nbsp;<a href=http://www.baidu.com/duty/>使用百度前必读</a>&nbsp; <a href=http://jianyi.baidu.com/ class=cp-feedback>意见反馈</a>&nbsp;京ICP证030173号&nbsp; <img src=//www.baidu.com/img/gs.gif> </p> </div> </div> </div> </body> </html>
* Connection #0 to host 192.168.44.170 left intact

对比正常不走代理而是直连的情况,少了前面的http建立tunnel隧道的步骤

[root@blog conf]# curl https://www.baidu.com/ -v
* About to connect() to www.baidu.com port 443 (#0)
*   Trying 14.215.177.38...
* Connected to www.baidu.com (14.215.177.38) port 443 (#0)
* Initializing NSS with certpath: sql:/etc/pki/nssdb
*   CAfile: /etc/pki/tls/certs/ca-bundle.crt
  CApath: none
* SSL connection using TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
* Server certificate:
*       subject: CN=baidu.com,O="Beijing Baidu Netcom Science Technology Co., Ltd",OU=service operation department,L=beijing,ST=beijing,C=CN
*       start date: Jul 05 05:16:02 2019 GMT
*       expire date: Aug 06 05:16:01 2020 GMT
*       common name: baidu.com
*       issuer: CN=GlobalSign RSA OV SSL CA 2018,O=GlobalSign nv-sa,C=BE
> GET / HTTP/1.1
> User-Agent: curl/7.29.0
> Host: www.baidu.com
> Accept: */*
>
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< Accept-Ranges: bytes
< Cache-Control: private, no-cache, no-store, proxy-revalidate, no-transform
< Connection: keep-alive
< Content-Length: 2443
< Content-Type: text/html
< Date: Wen, 22 Apri 2020 18:27:14 GMT
< Etag: "588603eb-98b"
< Last-Modified: Mon, 23 Jan 2017 13:23:55 GMT
< Pragma: no-cache
< Server: bfe/1.0.8.18
< Set-Cookie: BDORZ=27315; max-age=86400; domain=.baidu.com; path=/
<
<!DOCTYPE html>
<!--STATUS OK--><html> <head><meta http-equiv=content-type content=text/html;charset=utf-8><meta http-equiv=X-UA-Compatible content=IE=Edge><meta content=always name=referrer><link rel=stylesheet type=text/css href=https://ss1.bdstatic.com/5eN1bjq8AAUYm2zgoY3K/r/www/cache/bdorz/baidu.min.css><title>百度一下,你就知道</title></head> <body link=#0000cc> <div id=wrapper> <div id=head> <div class=head_wrapper> <div class=s_form> <div class=s_form_wrapper> <div id=lg> <img hidefocus=true src=//www.baidu.com/img/bd_logo1.png width=270 height=129> </div> <form id=form name=f action=//www.baidu.com/s class=fm> <input type=hidden name=bdorz_come value=1> <input type=hidden name=ie value=utf-8> <input type=hidden name=f value=8> <input type=hidden name=rsv_bp value=1> <input type=hidden name=rsv_idx value=1> <input type=hidden name=tn value=baidu><span class="bg s_ipt_wr"><input id=kw name=wd class=s_ipt value maxlength=255 autocomplete=off autofocus=autofocus></span><span class="bg s_btn_wr"><input type=submit id=su value=百度一下 class="bg s_btn" autofocus></span> </form> </div> </div> <div id=u1> <a href=http://news.baidu.com name=tj_trnews class=mnav>新闻</a> <a href=https://www.hao123.com name=tj_trhao123 class=mnav>hao123</a> <a href=http://map.baidu.com name=tj_trmap class=mnav>地图</a> <a href=http://v.baidu.com name=tj_trvideo class=mnav>视频</a> <a href=http://tieba.baidu.com name=tj_trtieba class=mnav>贴吧</a> <noscript> <a href=http://www.baidu.com/bdorz/login.gif?login&amp;tpl=mn&amp;u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.baidu.com%2f%3fbdorz_come%3d1 name=tj_login class=lb>登录</a> </noscript> <script>document.write('<a href="http://www.baidu.com/bdorz/login.gif?login&tpl=mn&u='+ encodeURIComponent(window.location.href+ (window.location.search === "" ? "?" : "&")+ "bdorz_come=1")+ '" name="tj_login" class="lb">登录</a>');
                </script> <a href=//www.baidu.com/more/ name=tj_briicon class=bri style="display: block;">更多产品</a> </div> </div> </div> <div id=ftCon> <div id=ftConw> <p id=lh> <a href=http://home.baidu.com>关于百度</a> <a href=http://ir.baidu.com>About Baidu</a> </p> <p id=cp>&copy;2017&nbsp;Baidu&nbsp;<a href=http://www.baidu.com/duty/>使用百度前必读</a>&nbsp; <a href=http://jianyi.baidu.com/ class=cp-feedback>意见反馈</a>&nbsp;京ICP证030173号&nbsp; <img src=//www.baidu.com/img/gs.gif> </p> </div> </div> </div> </body> </html>
* Connection #0 to host www.baidu.com left intact

此时http请求也可以代理

[root@blog conf]# curl http://www.baidu.com/ -v -x 192.168.44.170:3128
* About to connect() to proxy 192.168.44.170 port 3128 (#0)
*   Trying 192.168.44.170...
* Connected to 192.168.44.170 (192.168.44.170) port 3128 (#0)
> GET http://www.baidu.com/ HTTP/1.1
> User-Agent: curl/7.29.0
> Host: www.baidu.com
> Accept: */*
> Proxy-Connection: Keep-Alive
>
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< Server: nginx
< Date: Wen, 22 Apri 2020 18:32:36 GMT
< Content-Type: text/html
< Content-Length: 2381
< Connection: keep-alive
< Vary: Accept-Encoding
< Accept-Ranges: bytes
< Cache-Control: private, no-cache, no-store, proxy-revalidate, no-transform
< Etag: "588604ec-94d"
< Last-Modified: Mon, 23 Jan 2017 13:28:12 GMT
< Pragma: no-cache
< Set-Cookie: BDORZ=27315; max-age=86400; domain=.baidu.com; path=/
<
<!DOCTYPE html>
<!--STATUS OK--><html> <head><meta http-equiv=content-type content=text/html;charset=utf-8><meta http-equiv=X-UA-Compatible content=IE=Edge><meta content=always name=referrer><link rel=stylesheet type=text/css href=http://s1.bdstatic.com/r/www/cache/bdorz/baidu.min.css><title>百度一下,你就知道</title></head> <body link=#0000cc> <div id=wrapper> <div id=head> <div class=head_wrapper> <div class=s_form> <div class=s_form_wrapper> <div id=lg> <img hidefocus=true src=//www.baidu.com/img/bd_logo1.png width=270 height=129> </div> <form id=form name=f action=//www.baidu.com/s class=fm> <input type=hidden name=bdorz_come value=1> <input type=hidden name=ie value=utf-8> <input type=hidden name=f value=8> <input type=hidden name=rsv_bp value=1> <input type=hidden name=rsv_idx value=1> <input type=hidden name=tn value=baidu><span class="bg s_ipt_wr"><input id=kw name=wd class=s_ipt value maxlength=255 autocomplete=off autofocus></span><span class="bg s_btn_wr"><input type=submit id=su value=百度一下 class="bg s_btn"></span> </form> </div> </div> <div id=u1> <a href=http://news.baidu.com name=tj_trnews class=mnav>新闻</a> <a href=http://www.hao123.com name=tj_trhao123 class=mnav>hao123</a> <a href=http://map.baidu.com name=tj_trmap class=mnav>地图</a> <a href=http://v.baidu.com name=tj_trvideo class=mnav>视频</a> <a href=http://tieba.baidu.com name=tj_trtieba class=mnav>贴吧</a> <noscript> <a href=http://www.baidu.com/bdorz/login.gif?login&amp;tpl=mn&amp;u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.baidu.com%2f%3fbdorz_come%3d1 name=tj_login class=lb>登录</a> </noscript> <script>document.write('<a href="http://www.baidu.com/bdorz/login.gif?login&tpl=mn&u='+ encodeURIComponent(window.location.href+ (window.location.search === "" ? "?" : "&")+ "bdorz_come=1")+ '" name="tj_login" class="lb">登录</a>');</script> <a href=//www.baidu.com/more/ name=tj_briicon class=bri style="display: block;">更多产品</a> </div> </div> </div> <div id=ftCon> <div id=ftConw> <p id=lh> <a href=http://home.baidu.com>关于百度</a> <a href=http://ir.baidu.com>About Baidu</a> </p> <p id=cp>&copy;2017&nbsp;Baidu&nbsp;<a href=http://www.baidu.com/duty/>使用百度前必读</a>&nbsp; <a href=http://jianyi.baidu.com/ class=cp-feedback>意见反馈</a>&nbsp;京ICP证030173号&nbsp; <img src=//www.baidu.com/img/gs.gif> </p> </div> </div> </div> </body> </html>
* Connection #0 to host 192.168.44.170 left intact

配置代理

全局代理配置

# 编辑/etc/profile,增加以下几行
http_proxy=192.168.x.x:3128
https_proxy=192.168.x.x:3128
export http_proxy https_proxy

# 加载环境变量
source /etc/profile

指定用户配置代理

# 编辑~/.bashrc,增加以下几行
http_proxy=192.168.x.x:3128
https_proxy=192.168.x.x:3128
export http_proxy https_proxy

# 加载环境变量
source ~/.bashrc

程序上配置代理,略,问开发查框架文档即可

正文完
 
xadocker
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